Cattleya guttata Orchid Care & Culture

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Species Name: Cattleya guttata

Care Group: Bifoliate Cattleya

Distribution

Southern Brazil

Natural Habitat / “In Situ”

In the wild, Cattleya guttata grows in open and exposed areas, along side cacti and other low shrubs. The pseudobulbs get taller over time and can attain a total length over 4 feet. I believe this is due to it’s natural habitat where it grows in and among the shrubs and must compete for light, while benefiting from the root protection of shade. It also reportedly grows as a lithophyte on rock flats near the ocean and along the mountains, and as a epiphytes in trees on thick branches.

Video of Cattleya guttata in situ – growing wild

 

Cattleya guttata Care

I purchased this Cattleya guttata in June of 2010. It was labeled as a ‘coerulea’ form…after waiting 10 years I achieved my first flowering in November of 2018. It turns out my guttata is not the blue form. I love the color and low density spotting regardless.

Why I think I couldn’t get it to bloom – was providing variable light and anything other than full exposure in my Canadian windows was inadequate; plant was small; letting it go too dry for too long; using hard tap water

What I corrected to make it bloom – More light (direct sun through a window); adding sphagnum moss to the top of the leca; watering religiously weekly – if pseudobulbs are lightly shriveled mid week and moss is crispy dry, I’d water again; lastly I started pH adjusting to 5.8pH and using a nitrogen-heavy fertilizer though the growth season.

Flowering Habit

Cattleya guttata is often confused with Cattleya tigrina (formerly leopoldii) – I have not be able to find defining features between the two; however, according to the American Orchid Society, the easiest way to tell the difference is by bloom season. Catt guttata blooms in the the fall-early winter from a dead sheath, and tigrina blooms in the spring from a green sheath…who knows what happens if you have a hybrid of tigrina x guttata… maybe it blooms in both spring and fall.

Flower longevity was short on this plant – and the blooms began fading after 8 days; I have heard that they can last 1-3 weeks; I’m unsure what lead to my flowers fading so quickly. It may have been genetics, or culture. The flowers were very fragrant which can lead to shorter lifespan of the bloom; but the seasonal changes also meant light was lower, and temps were cooler AND it was a first-time flowering. Who knows… hopefully the flowers last longer next year.

Fragrance – the flowers of my guttata have a smell that reminds me of wintergreen mints (those white lifesaver type) in the early morning and the smell changes to be more like Double Bubble gum in the late morning/afternoon.

Light

Bright light is required for all bifoliates – it was a particular challenge for me to get this plant to bloom and I think part of that comes from the necessity for large overall biomass. I’ve said it in videos before, that orchid leaves are like solar panels that charge flower batteries. If you don’t have enough panels for some plants (or bright enough light), you simply won’t get flowers.

This plant lives at a South-facing window and is unobstructed. I recognize that window insulation is an important aspect of “heat” through a window – if you’re growing plants in your home, be careful of the leaf temperature and if you’re worried about a plant getting too hot, don’t put it at a south window. For me – it’s the only way I’ve been able to get this plant to bloom.

Water, pH & nutrients

Bifoliates reportedly hate wet roots; but I’ve also found that keeping them bone dry is just as bad. I took a lot of experimenting for me, but I found the sweet spot is to use a very open and airy mix of coarse bark or leca and then top-dress with sphagnum moss. The sphagnum will hold the water around long enough to allow the roots to pull water, but then dry without causing rot issues.

I started adjusting my pH in the spring of this year – this plant gets 5.8 pH and it has made marked increase in size compared to many of my other plants also on the same water/fertilzier routine. I use tap water (7.5pH & 300ppm – high alkalinity) to flush the media and fertilizers once a month. The biggest thing for success was to soak the roots, and have them dry within 12-24 hours.

For fertilizers I use 3 things: 1) an organic all purpose mix of 4-4-4 (this mix has: bat guano, glacier rock dust, bone meal, feather meal, blood meal and fish meal); 2) Nitrogen heavy soluble fertilizer in the summer (20-8-8); and a balanced “flowering solution” (20-20-20) in early-to-late fall – I will also dose with a flowering version of the organic fertilizer at this time, a single application of about 1/8tsp on the top of the media after a watering.

Temperature

Cattleya guttata is an intermediate grower that requires a dry winter rest – perfect for my dry-ass canadian home. I run the A/C all summer so the highest the temps get are around 28C; average is probably closer to 24C in summer; and in the winter I cycle my house temps to initiate spikes on my phals; day temps range from 18-24C and night temps are 16-18C.

Potting Media / Mix

This is my ONLY plant grown in semi-hydro. The vase is super weird, but it allows me to hoist the plant up above all the other orchids and ensure it gets full & unobstructed sun

 

Photos of Cattleya guttata